Saturday, February 8, 2020

Build Environment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Build Environment - Assignment Example Since there is no open space on both sides of the building, the structure can be insulated, steed aided, glass tinted with base insulators. Steel can be chosen for this building alongside timber and concrete work. Steel doesn't rust fast it is immune to creatures such as insects and termites, therefore, there less need for insecticides and pesticides. Steel is not combustible, and we can safely say that it is fireproof. Steel can withstand natural turbulence such as earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes. It has much earthing protection from lightning strikes. There would be less fear of the load bearing in placing interior walls because steel allows greater design in flexibility. In modern structures, the combination of steel and timber is a good choice. Steel framed buildings with glass panels and wood or timber would make a good combination to the conditions sited. Light framed structures of aluminium, steel and large glass panels are to be considered in this structure. Insulating concrete with the use of foam forms filled with concrete and structural insulated, foam panels faced with oriented strand board or (a good alternative) fibre cement, can both be used, as well as light gauge steel framing and the more detailed heavy-gauge steel framing. Because of its location, brick and block construction could be an option. Large glass panels are best for the front and rear side of the structure. Natur ally stained wood panels or danarra plywood is a good material for the woodworks of the building. Wood is a light material and it adds beauty when properly set. Aside from the use of the building for hotel and office spaces the location is most likely to be very suitable for commercial purposes. The ground floor of the building can be converted into commercial spaces. The office spaces can occupy the second floor up to the 10th floor. The hotel rooms would be on the 11th floor and up. A fire escape is to be located at the both ends of the building aside from a stairs that is to be build inside the building. The design of the stairs is one that goes around the elevator which is to be situated in the middle of the building. The front and back of the building will be covered with large glass panels. A separate comfort room for the male and female users are to be installed in every storey of the building. In providing a development of Fire Management Strategy for the building, a step by step guide to follow is recommended to assist them to comply with the requirements of Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. A fire safety strategy is neede d to give satisfaction to the functional requirement of the building. The fire safety measures must have the adequacy of means to prevent fire. There must be early warnings by automatic detection. The standard means of escape must be provided. There is also the provision for smoke control and control of rate of fire growth. The standard of active measures for fire extinguishment and control, the facilities to assist the fire service, training of staff in fire safety and fire routines, the continued control under other legislation to maintain and test fires safety measures and management of fire safety are considered. In understanding the nature of service installations from the builder's perspective, the importance of building services must be identified together with the methods used for fire protection. The (building regulations 2000), Approved Document B is the guidance on how to meet the

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Art history blog Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Art history blog - Assignment Example Romanticism is demonstrated through emotions of attachment and nostalgia. The second painting of the Sea of Ice by Casper David between 1823 and 1825 demonstrates emotions of renunciation and awe towards nature. The painting features the destructive aspect of nature and the hopelessness of man. The third painting Raft of Medusa by Theodore Gericault is of an actual event that took place and Gericault attempts to evoke feelings of empathy by bringing out the emotions that were felt by the people of the raft after they were abandoned by their ship in the middle of the sea. 3. The White Horse and the Sea of Ice deal with the same theme but from different perspectives. They capture different aspects of the theme of man and nature. The White Horse expresses man’s attachment to nature while the Sea of Ice expresses man’s inability to tame nature. The Raft of Medusa on the other hand deals with the theme of desperation caused by man upon his fellow beings. Becoming Modern 1. a ) Capitalism created modern by ensuring that people specialize in what they can be able to produce best, and make money by selling the surplus so that they can use the money to buy what they do not produce. This is contrary to the classics period where people produced all they needed. b) Urban Culture created modern through the emergence of totally new ways of living. Towns grew bigger, people bought almost all of their needs, and the gap between the rich and the poor widened. c) Technological advances changed the way people lived and the way people perceived each other and in doing so created modern. d) Secularism creates modern by ensuring that people were less concerned with religious matter but were more concerned with their own emotions and feelings’ e) Optimism created modern by promoting even more change because people were able to perceive change positively. 2. The audience of art changed from the rich and learned to the middle class and learned but with different out look. Artists were therefore more influenced to depict aspects such as landscape that would be understood by the new audience. These changes made modern more dynamic because people readily embraced and influenced change. 3. Avant Garde was modern artist’s movement that was daring and radical and steered away from the traditional art techniques and influences. A Burial at Ornans 1. The painting A Burial at Ornans by Gustave Courbet is antithetical to modernism beca 2. use it depicts a traditional aspect of burial with all the religious ceremony accompanying it. One of the characteristics of modernism is secularism. 3. Gustave chose the topic to bring about the aspect of realism away from the conventional expectations where artists painted on particular issues for instance politics. Gustave depicted a funeral where people went to mourn but he was also aiming at showing the individual’s contemplation of the aspect of mortality. Some people are mourning; others are distrac ted, while others like the children are oblivious of the events. However, all these people are brought together to show heroism of the deceased. 4. The art audience at the Paris Salon in 1850 was astounded at the painting because it totally contradicted their expectations. Gustave chose to represent the funeral as it was rather than engage in subjects such as politics or religion. Impressionism: Art and Modernity 1. The term impression had been coined by those

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Reasons Behind Colonial Settlements in North America Essay Example for Free

Reasons Behind Colonial Settlements in North America Essay As a whole, I believe economic development had a larger impact on colonial settlement than religious concerns, but this varies with the individual colonies. Each colony had something different to offer England and a different motive for settling. New England came about because the Puritans and Separatists wanted a place to worship free the original Church of England. Virginia, on the other hand, was established at first as a trade colony and base for gold and precious metal expeditions. The Maryland colony was founded in order to further the cultivation of certain crops like tobacco. Religion was by no means pushed away in the colonies. It was a strong and meaningful force for almost all colonists; it Just wasnt always their driving force. England held economic control over all colonies and did not let anything get in the way of that. Virginia became an agricultural settlement that brought large amounts of money to Britain. Religion was important and valued higher than everything except money. The colony of Maryland was given by Charles I to George Calvert, whose son (Cecilius Calvert) allowed freedom of religion to all Christian settlers in the colony. That was the biggest difference between Maryland and Virginia, who both became agricultural societies fairly quickly. Indentured servants were shipped to work the fields, which created a populous community and a strong economy. New England was created for more than Just a place for the Puritans and Separatists to worship freely. Because of American influence in English lifestyle (mainly food), the population doubled, leading to high inflation, a very unbalanced wealth distribution, and a plummeting economy. As a result of overpopulation and poverty, people were drawn to North America. Among the attracted people were Puritans and Separatists, who could both escape poverty and start a new colony based off of their own religious beliefs. These people were rebels in the eyes of the English hierarchy, and therefore received much less funding and support from the government. New England evolved as more of a family friendly colony than the Chesapeake Bay colonies, which were more business and economically focused. The Chesapeake Bay colonies were established by the English government for the sole purpose of economic development, while New England was founded by religious leaders escaping English intolerance. The Massachusetts Bay Company was moved to New England, along with the addition of three thousand Puritans by the year of 1643. The area sprouted busy seaports in coastal towns and farms in agricultural. As the population grew, New England became more financially inclined. Compared to other European societies, English colonies were as equally everyday life centered as economically centered. They brought their culture, religion, and everyday life to North America. New England and the Chesapeake Bay colonies had different personalities and goals when it came to economic, religious, and settling beliefs. The economy was a focus point for both colonies, but especially the Chesapeake bay colonies, while religion was the founder of New England.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Manages debated and controversial topic in english

Manages debated and controversial topic in english The way in which our innate language abilities are able to influence how successfully we manage to use a language is a somewhat debated and controversial topic within the world of linguistics. Many believe that universal grammar has a very strong influence on how well an individual is able to structure sentences and use grammar while others disagree, at least with regard to how important it is in different situations. It is often argued that universal grammar has at least a moderate influence on first language acquisition, but the affect it has on second language acquisition is where the controversies lie, with many researchers having opposing opinions. Individuals who learn a foreign language frequently experience problems with using correct grammar, at least until they are very advanced in the acquisition process. A lot of the time, individuals learning a second language take a very long time to become as proficient as native speakers are, and they even often never reach the same l evel of proficiency as native speakers of the language. The significance of this is highly debated however, with a variety of causes being outlined as possible from many different studies. Time and time again, it has been shown that individuals who learn a second language often use grammar inappropriately, even when they may be at least moderately accustomed to the language and have been learning it for a reasonably long amount of time. For example, Lu (2001) found that Chinese learners speaking English often used the word â€Å"the† when it would be more correct to use â€Å"a†. This is a trend that has been found in many so-called L2 learners (i.e. people who are learning a second language). Interestingly however, such errors have also been found in the acquisition of English as a first language. A good example of this was in a study by Schaeffer and Mathewson in 2005. They found that children learning English as a first language make very similar errors to the errors individuals learning a second language make. They also state that children seem to start off by obeying what seem to be innate universal grammar principals, but as their learning develops, they eventually start to apply the rules of the language in the way adults do (through learning, conditioning and observation). The suggestion here therefore is that universal language is the cause of this incorrect grammar usage in both children learning to speak and in adults learning a second language, at least to some degree. This implies that universal grammar may indeed have a role in second language acquisition, since it seems that there are certain innate rules of language development that everyone follows right or wrong. Of course, many other studies imply that universal grammar influences the individual to speak properly rather than wrongly (albeit, at a different stage of the language acquisition process). It is argued that the input an individual receives when learning a language is not enough to allow them to successfully and properly use grammar, therefore meaning innate language abilities have a strong influence on language development, at least with regard to first language acquisition and likely with second acquisition too (White, 1985). A big question is raised from this theory of universal grammar being so integral to successful language development. When considering the idea that a large part of grammar ability may be innate, one must question how to differentiate between innate language abilities and learned language knowledge knowledge that (for L2 learners) was gained from the learning of their first language. To differentiate between innate and learned phenomena, there are two areas to be considered (White, 1990). Firstly, the input the individual receives for learning the language should be insufficient for the phenomenon to be present. Secondly, it should be different from phenomena learned as part of the first language. The fulfilment of both of these criteria could in theory mean an innate language ability is responsible for the production of the specific phenomenon in the L2 learning. Most studies into L2 language acquisition have been based around adult learners. Zdorenko and Paradis (2007) however carried out a study into second language learning in children. Within this study, they addressed numerous questions, taking into account how much first language background affects second language acquisition. Their conclusions were that the childrens first language influenced their acquisition early on in the learning process, but not later on, once the child had become more competent. They do not directly suggest that any part of the L2 learning however is innate, and instead suggest that article semantics could be responsible for the presence of certain phenomena. The idea that universal grammar may have a role in the development of first language acquisition is generally more accepted than the idea that it plays a role in second language acquisition. This largely could be to do with the fact that determining a role for innate language abilities at the stage of learning a second language is a lot more challenging, since with first language acquisition the only confounding factor that needs to be taken into account is the level of input the learner receives about the language. Flynn (1996) suggested a model for the role of universal grammar in L2 learners. The model has 3 possibilities: the no access hypothesis, the partial access hypothesis and the full access hypothesis. The no access hypothesis states that universal grammar simply is not accessible to L2 learners and all learning is simply due to input the learner gains. The partial access hypothesis claims that universal grammar is partially available to the L2 learner, but only those parameters that characterise first language phenomena are available. The full access hypothesis states that universal grammar is completely available to L2 learners and that any differences between first and second language acquisition can be accounted for via other ways. If any part of this model is correct, it seems unlikely that it is the full access hypothesis. As stated previously, much evidence exists suggesting L2 language acquisition is rarely ever as complete as first language acquisition. Or at least, it is a much slower process and it takes a long time for L2 learners to become as proficient in the language as native speakers. Hale (1996) suggests that universal grammar is very difficult to distinguish from first language acquisition in L2 learners, implying that the two are almost one of the same. Indeed, many researchers agree with the idea that universal language is something that goes hand-in-hand with first language acquisition, but not with second language acquisition. It seems that the matter of how involved universal language is in second language acquisition may never be resolved. On one hand, the presence of certain phenomena in L2 that are absent in the first language along with evidence that the phenomena have not been learned suggest that maybe innate language skill do have a role in L2 learning, however evidence from Zdorenko and Paradis (2007) along with other studies suggest that innate language abilities at least dont hold the most significant level of importance. If universal grammar does have a role in the learning of a second language, Flynns hypothesis of partial access would arguably seem most plausible. The fact that many individuals learning a second language never become fully competent at it suggests that full access is not possible, since this would therefore suggest no variation in the ability to speak a second language from the ability to speak a first language. No access however seems unlikely to, since the fact that there are similarities in the mistakes L2 learners and children learning a first language make implies that there is some innate mechanism governing language ability; a mechanism all individuals have that predisposes them to language and which diminishes as they age but never fades. This theory is further backed up by the fact that, within the Zdorenko and Paradis study, they found that the children had features of language acquisition in common with both first and second language acquisition, implying that maybe thei r innate language skills (due to their age) were having an affect (although this is not an idea that is pointed out within the study). The ‘critical period hypothesis is a well-known theory of language acquisition which states that children are much more primed for learning languages than adults. This hypothesis fits together very well with the partial access hypothesis. The critical period hypothesis is widely accepted by a large number of linguists. One of the best known examples here is that of Genie, a girl brought up in social isolation, who started to learn to talk at a late age (Curtiss, 1977). Although she was shown to not be mentally impaired, she was never able to learn to speak properly. It is most likely this was due to her age and her inability therefore to gain full access to her innate language abilities. Therefore, universal grammar seems to be something that very possibly does influence L2 learning and adult learners, but its effect diminishes with age, and therefore children can learn languages first, second and beyond more effectively than adults.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Family and Medical Leave Act Essay -- essays research papers

Family and Medical Leave Act   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On August 5, 1993, the Family and Medical Leave Act became effective for most of the employers and employees covered by the act. The FMLA is designed to help employees balance their work and family responsibilities by allowing them to take reasonable unpaid leave for certain family and medical reasons, including serious health conditions that prevent the employee from working. Not only has the FMLA evolved over the years, but also the current application in the workplace environment is very complex for the employee as well as the employer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Over the years, FMLA has evolved into a one of the most discussed and complex laws in the United States. Since 1993, over 35 million eligible workers have taken leave for family or medical reasons. For all the employers covered by the act, 80 percent reported that it had a positive effect or noticeable effect on business productivity, profitability and growth. ( As the FMLA has evolved, it has had positive effects on both employees and employers. However, even though it is very effective, it is also a very complex law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  FMLA covers private sector employers that employ 50 or more individuals. Public employers are covered under FMLA no matter how many workers they employ. The FMLA requires covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to eligible employees for childbirth or care of a child, adoption, their own serious illness or that of a...

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Authur Miller Essay -- essays research papers

With the Death of a Salesman during the winter of 1949 on Broadway, Arthur Miller began to live as a playwright who has since been called one of this century's three great American dramatists. He has also written other powerful, often mind-altering plays: The Crucible, A View from the Bridge, A Memory of Two Mondays, After the Fall, Incident at Vichy, and The Price. And who could forget the film The Misfits and the dramatic special Playing for Time. Death of a Salesman was not Arthur Miller's first success on Broadway. Two years before, when All My Sons opened at the Coronet Theater, Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times wrote: "The theater has acquired a genuine new talent." The play also won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award and the Donaldson Award (voted upon by Billboard subscribers). Since the debut of All My Sons he has noted: "The success of a play, especially one's first success, is somewhat like pushing against a door which is suddenly opened that was al ways securely shut until then. For myself, the experience was invigorating. It suddenly seemed that the audience was a mass of blood relations, and I sensed a warmth in the world that had not been there before. It made it possible to dream of daring more and risking more." He did however push the limits when he released his controversial piece Death of a Salesman. And, he gained even more acclaim. Soon he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the New York Drama Critics Circle Award. He was qui...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Social Performance and Social Influence

Social Performance and Social Influence Introduction Social performance is the study of how the presence of others affects behavior. At times, the mere presence of others can have a facilitating or motivating effect, improving performance. However, when others are present, people may also become hindered or less motivated. This class will explore how one's perception of others determines one's response. Hetherington, Anderson, Norton, and Newson (2003) explored how eating behavior is influenced when eating alone, with strangers, or with friends.Would you predict that eating with others has a facilitating effect, increasing food intake, or the opposite effect, decreasing the amount of food eaten? Research on social influence, which refers to how the attitudes and opinions of others influence one's attitudes and opinions, is one of the greatest contributions of social psychological research in understanding human behavior. This class focuses on two different types of social influence, one that serves to maintain group norms (social control: conformity and obedience) and the other that aims to change group norms (social change by minority influence and innovation).Social psychologist, Dr. Robert Cialdini has researched basic principles that govern how one person may influence another. You will read about these six principles in his 2002 article â€Å"The Science and Practice of Persuasion. † Social Performance Aristotle first called humans social animals. People tend to gather, play, and work in groups. Groups fulfill a variety of functions such as satisfying the need to belong, providing support and intimacy, and assisting in accomplishing tasks that individuals could not accomplish alone, etc.In Chapter 13 of the textbook, groups will be defined as two or more people working together on a task in which the outcome is quantifiable. This discussion will focus on two major areas that have been researched since the end of the 19th century: social facilitation and social loafing. Social Facilitation At first glance, these terms seem to be opposing behaviors: social facilitation refers to the fact that people work harder in groups, whereas social loafing describes their tendency reduce their efforts when in groups.The difference, it appears, is how people view the individuals in their groups–whether they perceive those in the group as being with them us or against them. If group members are against them, they perceive them as competitors, evaluators, or sources of comparison, which is likely to increase or facilitate their efforts. If they are with them, sharing in the demands of the task and evaluation, they are likely to â€Å"loaf† or reduce our efforts. These findings appear counterintuitive.Research on social facilitation began with Triplett (1989) who observed that cyclists pedaled faster, or performed better, when others were present than when performing alone. He argued that the other biker was a stimulus, arousing a competitive instinct in the cyclist. He tested his theory by asking children to wind fishing reels either alone or beside other children. The majority of the children turned the wheel faster when working alongside another child than when reeling alone. Allport (1924) termed this effect social facilitation.Still, it seemed that many disagreed about whether the presence of others increased or decreased performance on tasks. Zajonc (1965) renewed interest in social facilitation, and suggested that the presence of others enhanced a dominant response–which is the most probable response on a given task. If the task is simple and well-learned, the dominant response will be facilitated. For example, if you were a skilled concert pianist, performing in front of others would increase your proficiency on the task; you would play beautifully.Since you are not skilled at this art, being observed by others would no doubt cause anxiety and would result in quite the opposite effect, inhibit ing your performance. Zajonc was suggesting that the presence of others increases drive. Others were still arguing that it was the evaluation or the competition associated with others being present that produced the drive. Whether it was mere presence or evaluation apprehension that increased the drive, the drive theory remained the dominant thought of the time.Alternative approaches to social-facilitation effects fall into three classes: The first was the continued thought that the presence of others increases drive by evaluation apprehension. The second thought suggested that the situation places demands on the individual to behave in a particular way; individuals are engaged in self-presentation and self-awareness. The third idea argued that the presence of others affects focus and attention to the task, meaning that the task becomes cognitive. Hence, the controversy over whether it is the mere presence of others or evaluation that causes social facilitation is unresolved.Social Loafing Social facilitation research demonstrates that the presence of others sometimes enhances performance, yet at times reduces it. But, how does working with others affect motivation? Many would argue that groups should energize and motivate. The tendency for individuals to work less hard on a collective task than on an individual task is called social loafing. For example, those group projects at work or school where a few individuals did the majority of the work–social loafing.Research in this area has been conducted in a way that makes individuals believe that they are either working alone or working with others–then measures efforts toward the task. For example, Ringelmann (Kravitz & Martin, 1986) had volunteers pull on a rope as hard as they could in groups of varying sizes. Their efforts decreased as group sizes increased. This was explained in two ways: their motivation decreased as groups size increased or maybe the larger groups were not able to coordinate their efforts efficiently. Researchers sought to tease apart these two factors, focusing on motivation.You can imagine that it was difficult to devise methods that lead participants to believe they were either working alone (when they were not) or with others (when they were working alone), which lends to the difficulty of studying social loafing. However, over 100 studies (Steiner, 1972; Griffith, Fichman, & Moreland, 1989; Jackson & Williams, 1985; Henningsen et al. , 2000) have tested the effects of groups on motivation, and social loafing has been replicated in most of these studies. Other theories have attempted to explain social loafing.Social impact theory states that when a group is working together, the expectation is that the effort should be diffused across all participants, resulting in diminished effort. Arousal reduction postulates that the presence of others should increase drive only when they are observers and reduce our efforts when they are coworkers. Evaluation potential suggests that social loafing occurs because individual efforts are so difficult to identify during a collective task; one can easily hide in the crowd or may feel they will not be acknowledged for their hard work.Dispensability of effort argues that individuals may feel their efforts are unnecessary or dispensable. The group simply does not need them. An integrative theory: the collective effort model states that individuals will work hard on a task only to the degree to which they believe their efforts will be instrumental in leading to outcomes they value, personally. Hence, the value they place on the task (and their efforts) depends on their personal beliefs, task meaningfulness, favorable interactions with the group, the nature of the rewards, and the extent to which their future goals are impacted by the task.Social loafing can be moderated, or reduced, when individuals' efforts can be identified or evaluated, when individuals are working on a task they deem as impor tant or of personal relevance, or when individuals are working with cohesive groups or close friends. Individual differences or characteristics also influence who engages in social loafing less because they value collective outcomes. For example, a need for affiliation, a hard work ethic, or high self-monitoring can influence effort. It should be clear that the mere presence of others is arousing.It appears that if others are competitors or evaluators they facilitate motivation to work harder. If individuals see others as a part of themselves, they can hide behind them or their efforts can get lost in the efforts of others. Further research in this area can help us determine how our view of others affects our motivation and performance. Social Influence Processes of Control and Change Social influence is one of the primary research areas in social psychology and refers to the ways in which opinions and attitudes influence the opinions and attitudes of others.Two types of social infl uence can be identified in groups: influence aimed at maintaining group norms (social control) or changing group norms (social change). The most common form of social control is conformity, where an individual complies with or accepts the group's views. Since the influence is typically within a context of a group of people influencing an individual, it is referred to as majority influence. Another type of social control is obedience, where individuals obey an authority figure, often against their will.For group norms to change, a small subset of the group must resist the majority view, which is termed minority influence. If minorities never resisted, group opinions would persist, fashions would never change, innovations would not come about, etc. It must be clear that the term majority refers to the larger group of people who hold the normative view and has power over others. Minority groups tend to be small, hold nonnormative positions, and wield very little power.This study textbo ok is concerned with two influence processes: processes that ensure that others adhere to the group's position (social control; conformity and obedience) or processes that aim to change the group's position (social change: innovation and active minorities). Social influence has studied how individuals conform to the majority, often by giving an obvious erroneous response to a question. According to Festinger (1950, 1954), this occurs because there are social pressures for groups to reach consensus, especially when there is a group goal.Individuals seek social approval and seek others to verify their opinions. Deutsch and Gerard (1955) distinguish between normative social influence (conforming to expectations of others) and informational social influence (accepting information from the group as reality). Another view is that people conform over concerns for positive self-evaluations, to have good relationships with others, and to better understand a situation by reducing uncertainty. Social influence also addresses why people comply with acts that clearly cause harm to another.The study of obedience is intimately tied to one social psychologist–Stanley Milgram (1963). His post-WWII research aimed to understand why people willingly engaged in the atrocities perpetrated by the Nazis. People probably preferred to believe these were evil, disturbed men who were intrinsically evil? However, many of them claimed they were not responsible for their behavior. After all, they were simply following orders. In Milgram's (1963) classic study, he led participants (who were assigned to be â€Å"teachers†) to believe they were administering harmful shocks to the â€Å"learners† each time they made an error on a task.The experimenter (the authority figure) demanded they increase the level of shock for each incorrect response. As shocks increased, the receiver (the learner, who was out of the sight of the teacher) responded with distressed reactions. Howeve r, the teacher was encouraged, even demanded, to continue the experiment, even though he believed the learner was experiencing extreme distress. The question was, to what extent normal people would obey the instructions of the authority figure and administer harmful levels of shock to harm another individual.Milgram's results showed that a full 65% of all participants administered every level of shock, surpassing levels believed to do fatal harm to subjects. Milgram's findings have been replicated with consistent results. Why did they obey? Milgram offered the following explanations: (a) they had entered into a contract with the experimenter and did not wish to spoil the experiment; (b) they were absorbed in the experiment and lost sight of the implications of their actions; (c) the participants are acting for the experimenter; they may be pushing the buttons, but they are not responsible, the experimenter is.Notice these are all situational explanations; participants were put into a powerful role relationship with the experimenter. However, when the experimenter was not visible, or another participant played the role of the experimenter, obedience rates decreased, but did not fall to zero, indicating the role relationship did not fully account for their obedience. Milgram's research remains some of the most intriguing and influential in social psychology. Minority InfluenceMoscovici's (1976) book Social Influence and Social Change, he argues that minorities can create conflict by offering a different perspective, thereby challenging the dominant or majority view. Moscovici claims that people trying to avoid conflict may dismiss the minority position, and possibly denigrate it. However, when the minority demonstrates commitment to their position, the majority may consider the minority view as a viable alternative. He called this the minority's behavioral style–meaning the way the message is organized and communicated.By standing up to the majority, the minority demonstrates that it is certain, confident, committed, and not easily persuaded. Researchers have compared majority and minority influence. Conversion theory is the dominant perspective and argues that all forms of influence, whether minority or majority, create conflict that individuals are motivated to reduce. However, people employ different processes depending on whether the conflict is the result of majority influence or minority influence. Comparison process suggests that people focus attention on fitting in, or complying with what others say.Their goal is to identify with the group and comply with the majority position, often times without examining the majority's arguments in detail. Social comparison can drive majority influence, but cannot motivate minority influence, according to Moscovici (1976), because people desire to disassociate themselves with undesirable groups. Because minority groups tend to be distinctive, they stand out, and this encourages a validati on process where some examine the judgments in order to confirm or validate them–to see what it is the minority saw or to understand the minority's view.This process can lead to increased message processing which results in an attitude change on an indirect, latent, or private level. Convergent-divergent theory is proposed by Nemeth (1986) and simply states that people expect to share the same attitude as the majority and to differ from the minority (the false-consensus heuristic). Stress is the result of realizing that the majority has a different perspective than oneself, especially if one is in the physical presence of the majority. Stress narrows one's attention and majority influence, and then leads to convergent thinking.Minorities, on the other hand, do not cause high levels of stress, since they hold different views, which allows for less restricted focus of attention and leads to a greater consideration of alternatives that may not have been considered without the in fluence of the minority view. This results in creative and original solutions. Other theories that integrate minority and majority influence include mathematical models, objective-consensus models, conflict-elaboration theory, context/comparison model, and self-categorization theory.More contemporary models include social-cognitive responses with an emphasis on information-processing such as the elaboration likelihood model and the heuristic systematic model we discussed in an earlier chapter. New research continues to develop. Conclusion This module reviewed social psychological research that has made great contributions to the understanding of human behavior. Early research (e. g. , Triplett, 1898; Zajonc, 1965) led to the beginning of the relatively new field of social psychology.Research investigating social performance–whether performance is improved (social facilitation) or hindered (social loafing) by the presence of others became widely studied as researchers inquired about under what circumstances and what variables determined our response. Supplementary reading by Hetherington (2006) examined the effects of the presence of others on eating behavior. Milgram's (1963) research on obedience may be some of the most cited research in social psychology. Cialdini's contributions to the study of social influence (and social psychology in general) have been significant, as well.References Allport , F. (1924). The influence of the group upon association and thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 159-182. Cialdini, R. B. , & Goldstein, N. J. (2002). The science and practice of persuasion. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,43(2), 40-50. Deutsch, M. & Gerard, H. B. (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629-636 Festinger, L. (1950). Informal social communication. Psychological Review, 57, 271-282.Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 337-360. Griffith, T. 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