Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Advantages Disadvantages of Mobile Tracking Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Motorola DynaTAC, the first mobile telephone, ushered in a revolution in wireless communication in 1973. Today, mobile devices combined with technological advancements provide several benefits, including tracking minors and emergency-location service enhancements. The Global Positioning System (GPS), a constellation of 24 U. S. Department of Defense satellites, has enhanced mobile-tracking technology. However, with technological advancement comes the possibility of negative effects or misuse. Law Enforcement Advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mobile technology enhances location services and reduces emergency-response time. According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), United States emergency personnel estimate that 50 percent of calls are placed using a mobile device. Through the integration of FCC-enforced Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) and GPS, when you call for emergency services, the call is routed to the nearest cel l-phone tower regardless of mobile-service provider. Mobile tracking automatically communicates the phone number and location of the caller to a PSAP that manages the area. Law Enforcement Disadvantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ A disadvantage of law-enforcement access to mobile-tracking technology is the sheer number of inquiries. Sprint Nextel, a wireless-service provider, provided law-enforcement agencies with GPS location information on its customers over 8 million times between September 2008 and October 2009, according to a Sprint Nextel manager at the ISS World conference in October 2009. The number of inquiries coupled with the time required to respond can prohibit law enforcement from acquiring valuable time-sensitive information during a criminal investigation. Location Service Advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mobile-tracking technology increases the chances of finding someone quickly. Most cell phones contain GPS technology, which can establish a persons whereabouts by calculating the location, sp eed and time of his cell-phone signal. Children with cell phones that include GPS technology and location services can thus be located quickly. Concealed GPS devices can assist with locating runaway teens. They also provide a more reliable service due to their concealed nature. While a teenager aware of his cell phones GPS device can turn the service off, with a concealed location device, the teen is unaware the device is present. Location Service Disadvantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Location services accurately track a signal to within several yards. The same technology that can save lives can also provide a framework for invasion of privacy. According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, locational privacy is the ability of an individual to move in public space with the expectation that under normal circumstances their location will not be systematically and secretly recorded for later use. Applications like Google Latitudewhen downloaded to a cell phoneprovide simple social location to ols. However, Googles Latitude also records location history which opens the door for future requests. As a result, law-enforcement agencies can request information on the historical whereabouts of users which poses invasion-of-privacy concerns.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The Tried and True Method for Writing an Article Review in Step by Step Detail The guide presents the illustration of the Shell company that used to get an excellent company reputation in Germany, but has lost a market share on account of the accusations in harming the surroundings in 1995. There are instances when students do not will need to use articles as the main sources. Our writing team includes experienced pros with various academic backgrounds and they're always prepared to work for you. The goal of an article review is connected with values that the individuals attach to opinion from others about certain information in a specific field. The only means to compose a great review is to comprehend what the report is about. The very first region of the article review writing process is reading the post to be reviewed for the very first moment. The way of composing an article review is significantly difficult. 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Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Rebellion of Nora in A Dolls House A Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen, was written during a time when the role of woman was that of comforter, helper, and supporter of man. The play generated great controversy due to the fact that it featured a female protagonist seeking individuality. A Dolls House was one of the first plays to introduce woman as having her own purposes and goals. The heroine, Nora Helmer, progresses during the course of the play eventually to realize that she must discontinue the role of a doll and seek out her individuality. David Thomas describes the initial image of Nora as that of a doll wife who revels in the thought of luxuries that can now be afforded, who is become with flirtation, and engagesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The mere fact that Noras well-intentioned action is considered illegal reflects womans subordinate position in society; but it is her actions that provide the insight to this position. It can be suggested that women have the power to choose which rules to follow at home, but not in the business world, thus again indicating her subordinateness. Nora does not at first realize that the rules outside the household apply to her. This is evident in Noras meeting with Krogstad regarding her borrowed money. In her opinion it was no crime for a woman to do everything possible to save her husbands life. She also believes that her act will be overlooked because of her desperate situation. She fails to see that the law does not take into account the motivation behind her forgery. Marianne Sturman submits that this meeting with Krogstad was her first confrontation with the reality of a lawful society and she deals with it by attempting to distract herself with her Christmas decorations (Sturman 16). Thus her first encounter with rules outside of her dolls house results in the realization of her naivety and inexperience with the real world due to her subordinate role in society. The character of Nora is not only important in describing to role of women, but also in emphasizing the impact of this role on a woman. Noras child-like manner, evident through her minor acts of disobedience andShow MoreRelatedNora Helmer versus Hedda Gabler in Male Dominated Society Essay1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s stories of Hedda Gabler and A Doll House, we witness examples of a single individual against the overwhelming society. Nora left her family and marriage behind to become an independent individual without the control of men; whereas, Hedda Gabler choose death as her ultimate solution when she was threatened to be control by man. IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House was written in 1879 in a style of realism, which depicted life more truthfully without idealized literary elements. A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House conveysRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1879 A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Norwegian author Henrik Ibsen was banned throughout Britain as it challenged ideologies specific to those of Europe during the late nineteenth century. The drama presents itself as a social commentary by provoking the conservative ideals of the role of women and marriage. In the twenty-first century the performance stands harmless. Contrariwise, women of the Victorian age were seen as childlike and subservient, which resulted in much controversy surrounding IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s modern ideasRead MoreHerik Ibsen: Father of Modern Drama1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespositions in society, meaning they were kings or aristocrats. The conflicts in these plays usually involved a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, and therefore, they were ha rder to connect to in a personal level (Saleh). Yet all was bound to change when a large wave of rebellions hit Europe. Due to the Revolutions of 1848Ã in Europe, the public began to demand their governments political, economic, and social reforms. The people were looking for a more representative government that would not condemn people based on theirRead MoreA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, pointedly captures the reality of the Victorian Era within the play. Nora Helmer, the protagonist of the story, represents the typical women in society during that era. The audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s first impression of Nora is a money obsessed, childish, obedient house wife to her husband, Torvald Helmer. However, as the play progresses one can see that Nora is far from being that typical ideal trophy wife, she is an impulsive liar who goes against societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norm to be whomRead MoreRebellion Against Society in Ibsens A Dolls House Essay677 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRebellion Against Society in A Dolls House Ã Ã Ã Ã An underlying theme in A Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen, is the rebellion against social expectations to follow what one believes in their heart. This theme is demonstrated as several of the plays characters break away from the social norms of their time and act on their own beliefs. No one character demonstrates this better than Nora.Ã Nora rebels against social expectations, first by breaking the law, and later by taking the drastic step ofRead MoreComparison of A Dolls House and Antigone1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages --Excerpt from Ã¢â¬ËThe Empowered WomanÃ¢â¬â¢ by Sonny Carroll In my mind, Sonny CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s poem perfectly represents what an empowered woman should be; firm, determined and able to stand on her own feet. The characters of Nora and Antigone, from Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s HouseÃ¢â¬â¢ and SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËAntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢ respectively, completely fit my description of Ã¢â¬Ëthe empowered womanÃ¢â¬â¢. As inspiring figures, they left me wondering how they maintained their identities even in their patriarchal societies. What touchedRead MorePet Names and Belittlement: Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a dolls house, Ibsen has combined several characters with diverse personal qualities and used them to develop the story line as well as bring to life the major themes and issues that the plot is meant to address. Primarily there are two types of characters who can be categorized as static and dynamic, the static characters remain the same form the start to the end of a story and despite the e vents taking place around them, and they do not change their perception or altitudes. These types of charactersRead MoreA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and Top Girls2459 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesof A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and Top Girls Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and Caryl ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Top Girls both are a pillar of critical writing about the society they were originally produced in and have a central theme of the oppression of women, which makes them great sources of feminist reviews. Although Ibsen Ã¢â¬Å"abandoned the concept that the play was about gender rolesÃ¢â¬ (Urban, 1997), the central question is beyond the original context within which the plays were produced and received. A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House canRead MoreHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdramas, A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and Death of a Salesman societal appearanceÃ¢â¬â¢s stands above all else. Henrick Ibsens A Dolls House embarks on the gender fitting and domesticity of the Victorian Era at its worse as Nora Helmers unrealistic marriage falls within her grasps, leading to rebellion. Arthur Miller, on the other hand, sets forth the tragedy of the common man through the tragic hero of Willy Loma n and the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ in Death of a Salesman (Shmoop Editorial Team 4). In comparison, Nora and WillyRead MoreA Dolls House and the House of Bernarda Alba Essay1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFederico Garcia Lorcas Ã¢â¬Å"The House of Bernarda AlbaÃ¢â¬ and Henrik Ibsens Ã¢â¬Å"A Dolls HouseÃ¢â¬ both protest against the confinement of women of their days. Although the Houses are set differently in Spain of 20th century and Norway of 19th century respectively, both the plays relate in illuminating their respective female protagonists, Adela and Nora, as they eventually develop a sense of individuality and self-expression and emerge as free individuals from repression. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ attempts allow the reader
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Har Gobind Khorana (January 9, 1922 - November 9, 2011) demonstrated the role of nucleotides in the synthesis of proteins. He shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley. He is also credited with being the first researcher to produce the first complete synthetic gene. Fast Facts: Har Gobind Khorana Full Name: Har Gobind KhoranaKnown For: Research showing the role of nucleotides in the synthesis of proteins and the first artificial synthesis of a complete gene.Born: January 9, 1922 in Raipur, Punjab, British India (now Pakistan)Ã Parents: Krishna Devi and Ganpat Rai KhoranaDied: November 9, 2011 in Concord, Massachusetts, USAÃ Education: Ph.D., University of LiverpoolKey Accomplishments: Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1968Ã Spouse: Esther Elizabeth SiblerChildren: Julia Elizabeth, Emily Anne, and Dave Roy Early Years Har Gobind Khorana was likely born to Krishna Devi and Ganpat Rai Khorana on January 9, 1922. While that is his officially recorded date of birth, there is some uncertainty as to whether or not that was his exact date of birth. He had four siblings and was the youngest of the five children. His father was a taxation clerk. While the family was poor, his parents realized the value of educational attainment and Ganpat Rai Khorana ensured that his family was literate. By some accounts, they were the only literate family in the area. Khorana attended the D.A.V. High School and then matriculated to Punjab University where he earned both a Bachelors (1943) and a Masters degree (1945). He distinguished himself in both instances and graduated with honors for each degree. Subsequently he was awarded a fellowship from the government of India. He used the fellowship to earn his Ph.D. in 1948 from the University of Liverpool in England. After earning his degree he worked in a postdoctoral position in Switzerland under the tutelage of Vladimir Prelog. Prelog would greatly influence Khorana. He also completed additional post-doctoral work at Cambridge University in England. He studied both nucleic acids and proteins while at Cambridge. During his time in Switzerland, he met and married Esther Elizabeth Sibler in 1952. Their union produced three children, Julia Elizabeth, Emily Anne, and Dave Roy. Career and Research In 1952, Khorana moved to Vancouver, Canada where he took a job with the British Columbia Research Council. The facilities were not expansive, but the researchers had freedom to pursue their interests. During this time he worked on research involving both nucleic acids and phosphate esters. In 1960, Khorana accepted a position at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin, where he was the co-director. He became the Conrad A. Elvehjem Professor of the Life Sciences at the University of Wisconsin in 1964. Khorana became an American citizen in 1966. In 1970, he became the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1974, he became the Andrew D. White Professor (at-large) at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Order of Nucleotides Discovery The freedom that began in Canada at the British Columbia Research Council in the 1950s was instrumental to Khoranas later discoveries related to nucleic acids. Along with others, he helped to explain the role of nucleotides in the construction of proteins. The fundamental building block of DNA is the nucleotide. The nucleotides in DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine, and guanine. Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines while adenine and guanine are purines. RNA is similar but uracil is used instead of thymine. Scientists realized that DNA and RNA were involved in amino acid assembly into proteins, but the exact processes by which it all worked were not yet known. Nirenberg and Matthaei had created a synthetic RNA that always added the amino acid phenylalanine to a linked amino acid strand. If they synthesized RNA with three uracils together, the amino acids produced were always just phenylalanine. They had discovered the first triplet codon. By this time, Khorana was an expert in polynucleotide synthesis. His research group availed themselves of his expertise to show which combinations of nucleotides form which amino acids. They proved that the genetic code is always transmitted in a set of three codons. They also noted that some codons tell the cell to start making a protein while others tell it to stop making a protein. Their work explained a number of facets of how the genetic code works. In addition to showing that three nucleotides specified an amino acid, their work showed what direction mRNA was read, that the specific codons do not overlap, and that RNA was theÃ intermediary between the genetic information in DNA and the amino acid sequence in specific proteins. This was the basis of the work for which Khorana, along with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley, was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Synthetic Gene Discovery In the 1970s, Khoranas lab completed the artificial synthesis of a yeast gene. It was the first artificial synthesis of a complete gene. Many hailed this synthesis as a major hallmark in the field of molecular biology. This artificial synthesis paved the way for more advanced methods that would follow. Death and Legacy Khorana received a great number of awards during his lifetime. The foremost was the aforementioned Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1968. He was also awarded the National Medal of Science, the Ellis Island Medal of Honor and the Lasker Foundation Award for Basic Medical Research. He was awarded the Merck Award and the American Chemical Society Award for Work in Organic Chemistry. He earned a number of honorary degrees from universities in India, England, Canada, as well as in the United States. Over the course of his career, he authored or co-authored over 500 publications/articles in various scientific journals. Har Gobind Khorana died of natural causes in Concord, Massachusetts on November 9, 2011. He was 89 years old. His wife, Esther, and one of his daughters, Emily Anne preceded him in death. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968.Ã¢â¬ NobelPrize.org, www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1968/khorana/biographical/.Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. Ã¢â¬Å"Har Gobind Khorana.Ã¢â¬ Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 12 Dec. 2017, www.britannica.com/biography/Har-Gobind-Khorana.
Friday, May 15, 2020
The most venomous insect isnt some rare, exotic rain forest creature. You may even have them in your own yard. Can you guess what it is? The Venomous Ant The worlds most venomous insect is an ant. Not just any ant will do, since many ants dont sting. Of the ones that do, the award for most toxic venomÃ goes to the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex Maricopa). The LD50 for harvester ant venom (in rodents) is 0.12 mg/kg. Compare that to an LD50 of 2.8 mg/kg for a honey bee (Apis mellifera) sting. According to the University of Florida Book of Insect Records, thisÃ is equivalent to 12 stings killing a 2 kg (4.4 lb) rat. Since most rats dont weigh 4 1/2 pounds, put this in perspective: It takes about three stings to kill a 1-pound rat. Venom: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Insect venoms are comprised of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. They may include alkaloids, terpenes, polysaccharides, biogenic amines (such as histamine), and organic acids (such as formic acid). Venoms also may contain allergenic proteins, which can trigger a potentially lethal immune response in sensitive individuals. Biting and stinging are separate actions in ants. Some ants bite and do not sting. Some bite and spray venom on the bitten area. Some bite and inject formic acid with a stinger. Harvester and fire ants bite and sting in a two-part process. The ants will grab hold with their mandibles, and then pivot around, repeatedly stinging and injecting venom. The venom includes an alkaloid poison. Fire ant venom includes an alarm pheromone, which chemically alerts other ants in the vicinity. Chemical signaling is why the ants all appear to sting at once. That is essentially what they do. The Most Venomous Insect Isnt the Most Dangerous Youd do best to avoid harvester ants, especially if you are allergic to insect stings, but there are other insects much more likely to kill you or make you sick. Driver ants, for example, form the largest insect colonies. Their venom isnt the problem. Its that the ants travel en masse, repeatedly biting any animal in their path multiple times. These ants can kill elephants. The most dangerous insect in the world is the mosquito. While mosquitoes carry a variety of nasty pathogens, the big killer is malaria. Fortunately, only the Anopheles mosquito transmits the deadly disease. A total of 219 million cases of malaria were reported in 2017, leading to more deaths (435,000) than from any other insect bite, sting or disease. The World Health Organization estimates a death occurs every 30 seconds. Source Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 23: Most Toxic Insect Venom.Ã¢â¬ Ã Chapter 23: Most Toxic Insect Venom | The University of Florida Book of Insect Records | Department of Entomology Nematology | UF/IFAS.Ã¢â¬Å"Fact Sheet about Malaria.Ã¢â¬ Ã World Health Organization.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The Electoral College in the United States is not a place but a process. It was a process our founding fathers established in the Constitution. It is a complicated voting system that most citizens today do not understand. The Electoral College has been in place for well over two hundred years and is unfortunately showing its age. Most people believe that when they vote in a general election for the President, they truly believe they are voting for the president. This has shown to be the case many times in the past elections, but it has happened that the candidate who won the popular vote was not elected President by the Electoral College. The Process spelled out in the Constitution as written by our founding fathers known as the Electoral College needs to be replaced with a better method that truly represents the will and vote of the American people. The Constitutional Convention of 1787 considered several methods of electing the President, Including allowing the members of con gress, state Governors, state legislatures, and by direct election by the people (Staff, 2010). Because there was so many plans and thoughts on the process, a committee was formed which devised the Electoral College system. This plan received widespread approval by the delegates and was put in the final document. Article II, section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution spells out the process of selecting electors for the selection of President and Vice President. The ConstitutionShow MoreRelatedThe United States Electoral College715 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The electoral College was developed at the first constitutional convention in 1787 by James Wilson. The idea of the electoral college was influenced by how Rome would elect the Pope around the same time. During the Constitutional Convention they bounced around several ideas on which way would be most effective to elect a president. The number of electors was dependent upon the number of people in that states senate, (will always be 2) and the number of the people that state had in the House, (whichRead MoreThe Electoral College Of The United States1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Electoral College The Electoral College in the United States is not a place but a process. It was a process our founding fathers established in the Constitution. It is a complicated voting system that most citizens today do not understand. The Electoral College has been in place for well over two hundred years and is unfortunately showing its age. Most people believe that when they vote in a general election for the President, they truly believe they are voting for the president. ThisRead MoreUnited States Electoral College2080 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Marlon Straker Professor Trokkos PLS 201 04 December 2016 Electoral College With every Presidential election, the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ electoral college takes place. The electoral college has been around for about 200 years and it is still going strong with its intended purpose. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Democracy is defined as a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representationRead MoreThe United States Electoral College1757 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages The United States Electoral College is ultimately the way the President is elected. The electors are first picked from their state party, and then on election day they are voted on, based on their party. Then those electors take the popular vote from their state to either pursued their vote, or not. The electors are under no obligation to vote in the way that their state did. This is one reason why sometime the popular vote and the electoral votes donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree. Each state has a different amountRead MoreThe United States Electoral College1869 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Electoral College was established with the best of intentions of representing the American people; however, over time, this antiquated system has failed the American people. The people of the United States deserve better as the Electoral College is no longer a representation of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s voices and concerns. Instead, the political machine has corrupted this deep-rooted system with each modification. The way the people of the United States elect the President and Vice President, requires anRead MoreThe Electoral College in The United States1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaspect of American democracy at the forefront of the world stage. The election to the office of the leader of the free world, the Presidency of the United States of America was in question. How could a candidate receive more votes and still lose in the richest most powerful democracy in the world? I need n ot to go into a debate about the Electoral College as my stance will be clarified rather clearly. The night of the election it seemed as if the Vice President and candidate for the Democratic PartyRead MoreThe United States Electoral College1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages TravelChinaGuide.com (n.d.) states that Chinese years are represented by twelve zodiacal animal signs. The demographic religious breakdown is as follows: Folk religion, 21.9%, Buddhist, 18.2%, Christian, 5.1%, Muslim, 1.8%, Jewish and Hindu are both less than 0.1% (CIA World Factbook, 2015). Demographically, there are more males than females. Recently, the Chinese government lifted their ban of one child maximum per family (Burkitt, 2015). ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s government In 2013, XI Jinping was elected as PresidentRead MoreThe Electoral College And The United States Of America1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe 45th President if the United States of America will be sworn in on January 2017. So letÃ¢â¬â¢s examine the election process leading up to this momentous occasion. The president and vice president are not chosen by a nationwide popular vote of the American people. Rather, they are chosen by the slate of 538 Electors who have pledged their support for that candidate. The Electoral College is a process, not a place. This process is spelled out in the United States Constitution. Why Did the FoundingRead MoreThe Electoral College System Of The United States Essay1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAfter a year of voting and much debate the final decision of electing the 45th president of the United States was once again down to the Electoral College. (history) The Electoral College system was established by the founding fathers around 130 years ago and basically a process used to select the President and vice President of the United States of America (Procon). So when you went to the polls on November 8th and casted your vote for the next president, something else happened behind the scenesRead MoreAbolish The Electoral College For The United States Essay2111 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesback the Electoral College to the 18th century when the United States was first founded by our Founding Fathers, when after our independence, we created a democracy that will give equal opportunities for the people and not give too much power to one person; therefore the Electoral College ho lds a great importance in our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political history. Located in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, this document states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Background information 1.1 The outline of the global public health issue Cigarette smoking has been well documented to cause a wide range of health conditions such as heart diseases and respiratory problems and it is a major risk factor for getting various kind of cancers (Simpson Nonnemaker, 2013). Besides illness and death, there are several research evidences presenting that cigarette smoking results in less productive life years and for mounting needless health care costs. Globally, the preventable deaths caused by tobacco smoking accounts for over 5 million deaths yearly (Wilson et al., 2012). Currently, there are over 1 billion smokers in the world and over 80% of these smokers are living in low and middle income countriesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Since then, countries around the world has taken a wide range of initiatives and programs at national and state level such as tax and price measures, banning advertisement, promotion and sponsorship, educational efforts and providing cessation assistance in line with the WHO FCTC (Weishaar et al., 20 12). These policies are have resulted in significant reductions in the prevalence of smoking besides decreasing death, diseases and effect of health care cost towards economies caused by tobacco use. 1.2 The outline of the national issue Bhutan was among the first 40 countries that ratified WHO FCTC. The ratification of WHO FCTC in August 2004 by the National Assembly of Bhutan was a momentous event for tobacco control nationally and globally. But the National Assembly not only ratified the FCTC; it believed that a stronger stance must be taken on tobacco control. They issued a ban on the sale of tobacco products that became effective from 17 December 2004. In so doing, Bhutan went beyond the obligations outlined under the FCTC. Bhutan became the first and, thus far, the only country to have ever embarked on such a course of action. The FCTC requires member states to fulfill a number of obligations including periodic reporting of the implementation of measures adopted. Bhutan is among the nine member states in WHO South-East Asia Region that have developed and engaged in implementing comprehensive tobacco control policies,